The Types Of Apostasy
According to Islam, apostasy can occur in one of
the three type..
· through words and speech
· by act or behavior
· through the sanctifying, beliefs and confidence in the faith or intent.
Below are described the reasons for it.
a) Through word and speech.
When the speeches and the words reject the laws of Islam and principles of Islam which known by everyone or word that insult to any teachings of Islam, Islamic law, insult God, insult the Prophet Muhammad and the other prophets. it also could be said apostate if say drinking alcohol is not illegal, adultery should be, the Quran is not the word of God or insult the Sunnah of the Prophet.
Similarly, a person who is cruel, when he heard people oppressed by his saying. "This, (injustice) The commandment of Allah and His destiny ", then the cruel people had immediately upon hearing the words and he said with arrogant "I done it, not with the fate of God but I have the power, "then the words may be an apostate.
Similarly, if a Muslim legalize thing that illegal by Allah and His Messenger or otherwise. Example he allow adultery, legalize sodomy, forbidden to drink alcohol, or forbid marriage ban sale and purchase. But such attitudes may be an apostate.
b) By action or behavior.
When a Muslim commits any act or any behavior may revoke his faith. The person may
to be an apostate like bowing down to idols, the sun, moon, men, angels or to any other entity or perform worship to other than Allah like rocks, trees ,wood and other.
Similarly with any act of insulting and degrading Islam. like throwing Al-Quran intentionally or the books of hadith and tafsir or stepping with intent to insult. In the book of Hadith mentioned act would be an apostate like putting the Quran, the hadith of the Prophet, the names of God, His messenger,Angels and religious knowledge in dirty places with intent to degrade it.
Similarly, a person who leaves the prayer. or fasting in the month of Ramadan by saying it is not obligatory,he may be an apostate because he disobeyed a things that is known by the people that matter is obligatory on every Muslim. But if he leave because of lazy,when he is confident prayer or fasting is compulsory, then it does not become an apostate.
c) By Faith, belief or intention.
Apostasy by faith, belief or intent will occur when a Muslim deny in his heart about the truth of Teachings in Islam such as he was convinced the teachings of Islam is same as other religions, or believe that other religions are better than the religion of Islam, he
confident that the hudud is not feasible now in modern society.
Similarly, when a Muslim conviction that Allah has no power, Allah did not create this universe, Allah weak, Allah has the same characteristics as other creatures or other things, Similarly, if a person believes that the prophet Muhammad is not the last prophet, laws and teachings of Islam brought not for the all people, or believes the law Islam brought by Prophet Muhammad are outdated laws, Abused any teachings of Prophet Muhammad brought, feel that there is no harshness, no heaven and hell, people are not raised again after death, felling other religious are better than Islam, or the feel of
want to be a heathen in future and other confidence and wrong sanctifying .
Conditions That Validate The Apostasy
Apostasy mean a person who is out of Islam. then converted to another religion or not profess with any religion. A person to be categorized as an apostate must fulfill certain conditions. This means if conditions is not fulfilled, then the person is not called an apostate and not be punished with the punishment of apostate. The conditions is sensible baligh and voluntary.
Only sensible person can be declared as apostate. People who do things that would make apostasy either in the form of faith, words or actions should have sensible mind and can think properly to being called apostate. If a person is not have sensible mind, such as a child, a lunatic, and the unconscious, then they are not apostate even do things that
Based on syariah law, mind is the determinant of a person whether he are "mukallaf" or not, so those who do not have the sensible mind are not being "mukallaf" and all the words and actions are not considered and no punishment for him.
This problem ulama' divide it into two categories:
1) A person who drunk and his memory loss because of drinking (including drugs) that causes intoxication while he did not know that the drink was intoxicating. If because of drunkenness he was doing the things that cause apostate, he is not apostate. In this case there is no difference opinion in terms of the law among ulama’.
2) If a person drinks alcohol, and he knows it would intoxicating and lost his memory, then he did the things that cause apostasy, does he is an apostate?
In this problem, there are two opinions of ulama’:
The first opinion: some ulama’ Mazhab Hanbali, Shafie, Maliki and Ja'fariyah opinion that the person become apostate. This opinion is based on the following dalil:
i) The companions talk about person who is drunk. If a person is drunk he will say the words that are not logic, and if he says the words that are not logic, he will accuse a person incorrectly, then punish him by the law of slander (qadhf) . the companions require on the person law of slander of what he has talking when he was drunk and in based on the the way when he not drunk. because people like this his divorce is valid, then also affirm his apostate like person in aware.
ii) The opinion that a person like this is not a convert was denied, for prayer is obligatory for him and so do all to other duties. he is also guilty if do something illegal, and this is the original taklif, because intoxication not disappear memory of a person overall. Example, he would avoid if there is in danger, he would like the things that cheer him and saddened by what he saddening. furthermore drunkenness will disappear in a short period of time.
The second opinion: Ulama' Mazhab Hanafi and Zohiriyah opinion that such of person are not becomes an apostate according to the dalil :
i) Ibn Hazm from fuqaha 'al-Zohiriyah opinion that such of person are not becomes an apostate according to firman Allah S.W.T .
drunkenness people do not realize what he was saying. If he did not know what he was saying himself, then is nothing for him.
Hamza r.a said to Rasullah, Ali ibn Abi Zayd ibn Tolib and Harithah: "Indeed you are a slave to my father." he uttered these words in a drunken state and he was not punished by his words. If he say it in aware it will be heathen with what he said.
iii) Ulama' Mazhab Hanafi using istihsan dalil not quyas for their opinion. According to them not apostate on the drunk person because qiyas based on the apparent law is with tongue and is not what in heart because it is inner that cannot make an argument for a law.While arguments based on istihsan: Indeed law of heathen based on the blasphemy of that person, and the law of of faith based on what they believe it. Basic belief and blasphemy is allowed or denied. Affirmation of the drunk person who lost his memory cannot be make an argument that he rejected Islam, then his affirmation is invalid.
Between two opinions, the second opinion is more accurate. a person who drunk if he did things that can cause it to apostasy, does not make him an apostate. Argument is:
i) The argument of second opinion is more stronger.
ii) Person who drunk has done something illegal. drunk person not being punish out of islam with word that show to blasphemy because he did not mean to say it and not his desire for blasphemy and his did not intend to leave from islam. The shari'ah has set specific punishment for muslim who drinking. Therefore, if punish the drunk person with the different punishment which is apostate punishment In the same time it is not permitted by shari'ah
This problem is also divided into two categories:
1) if a person insane continuously and never aware even for a while, and in the same time he did the things that cause apostasy, then he is not apostate.
Ibn Mundhir said. "Ulama' agreed that if a psychotic apostate when he was insane, he remains a Muslim as before based on words of Saidina Ali r.a :
Anyone who not have sense mind does not become mukallaf; because the conditions of taklif is sensible.
2) A lunatic who has reached puberty and aware in a specific time then returned to his insane state. If he had apostate in the conscious state and then return to insane, He remain in apostate when he was conscious and have common sense. This is because while he was apostate he was conscious and have common sense.
Those who enchanted
When someone enchanted and he did apostate, the apostate is invalid. This is because
he was in unconscious and has no sensible mind to think and does not mean or want to do it.
Puberty is a valid condition for apostate. This means that anyone who still has not reached puberty, if doing things that can cause apostate. His is not apostate. Important issues to debated in this condition is whether a child is Islam?
In this case there are two opinions of ulama’. The first opinion came from Imam al-Shafi’e and Imam zufar from ulama’ Mazhab Hanafi . Their opinion is invalid Islam of a child until he reached puberty. This opinion is based on the dalil “khabar” from Saidina Ali r.a:
The second opinion came from ulama' Mazhab Hanbali, Imam AbuHanifah, Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani, Imam Abu Yusuf dan Imam Abu Shaybah.They opinion that the islam is valid for a child when he is understand Islam even he not reached puberty.
The meaning of "understanding Islam" in this case is to know "verily Allah S.W.T is his god, and the Prophet Muhammad is Messenger of Allah".This means that the valid condition for a child to embrace Islam is he must understand Islam based on the definition according to the Shari'ah.
Dalil held by ulama' until it reaches to the decision is:
i) Ali Ibn Abi Talib have converted to Islam when he was a child and no hadith that Prophet Muhammad reject the Islam of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
ii) The Hadith that is used by the first opinion is not accurate because it does not debate these issues. Islam is not obligatory for the child but if the child is embraced Islam, reward was written for him.
Based on the first opinion, can be concluded that when islam is not valid for a chid then apostate is also not valid even the child do thing that can cause or lead to apostate.
While Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Muhammad al-Shaybani opinion that puberty is not a valid condition apostate. Therefore, apostate for children who do things that lead to apostate.
A person who does things that leads to apostate, he should do his own will and pleasure. If someone forced him to become apostate, he would not be an apostate according to the following dalil:
This law is accepted and agreed by the fuqaha.
In addition, the person with the apostate punishment is divided into three categories:
1. The apostate person, but hide it.
2. The apostate person and realize it.
3.The apostate person and realize it and attack Islam with it.
SHARE SHARE SHARE